Stress is a well-known and identified problem within the nursing profession. According to Atkinson stress occurs when one is faced with events or encounters that they perceive as an endangerment to their physical or psychological well being (as sited in McGowan, 2001). Additionally stress levels will increase when controllability and predictability in a situation decrease. There is an inverse relationship between stress and job satisfaction, as stress goes up, job satisfaction falls. As a result this increased stress could commonly results in decreased job satisfaction and decreased quality of life. This could potentially contribute to nurses leaving the profession and as an end consequence, account for the current nursing shortage 송파스웨디시.
The cause of stress for nurses has found to be related to the nature of the profession. Included in these stressors are an intense work environment with extended work hours, weekends, night and holidays. According to Ruggiero (2003) stress could be related to variables of shift work, which is both physically and mentally taxing. This study also found varying degrees of depression in nurses ranging from mild to severe. Finally this study revealed that nurses were indifferent and disconnected to the job by feeling neither satisfied or unsatisfied with the work. Results such as these expose how large a problem stress is for the profession of nursing.
Factors of the intense emotional support that is needed for the patient and family is yet another burden of stress placed on nurse. In addition, exposures to pain, suffering and traumatic life events that the nurse experience on a daily basis can contribute to stress (Cohen-Katz, Capuano, Baker, & Shapiro, 2005). These concerns can lead to emotional exhaustion for nurses.
The lack of organizational support and involvement, which are outside of the control of nurses can greatly affect job satisfaction (McGowan, 2001). There is also a lack of control and power in an environment predominantly controlled by physicians. These stressors can contribute to psychological exhaustion and increased stress.
Consequently this leads to the question of what supportive interventions have been implemented for nurse, to decrease their stress thereby increasing their coping mechanisms. Would the availability of stress reducing programs contribute to coping mechanism and increase job satisfaction? Additionally how effective are these interventions?
In my initial search for stress interventions I encountered many studies located in the Ovid database that site stress in nursing and other related health care field. Key words such as stress management, burnout, job satisfaction, nursing retention, quality of life, environment and alternative therapies were utilized for this search. These studies revealed definitions of stress and countless and various causes and explanations for the stress experienced by nurses and other health care workers.
There were comparative studies between different nursing backgrounds and environment. For example medical-surgical nursing verses home-health nursing (Salmond & Ropis, 2005), which examined and compared the differences in both backgrounds. Ultimately it found both areas of practice had their own version of stress and it identified common stressors. Unfortunately no concrete measures were utilized to combat the problem
There were also illustrations comparing different styles of management and how nursing stress is affected. Magnet organizations were compared with traditional organization (Upenieks, 2003). The results of this particular study did prove that positive and supportive administration could make a difference in the levels of stress but again no specific stress intervention measures were used
There is a clear recognition and acknowledgement of the problem of stress in nursing but there is a significant lack of information that actually addressed the problem with potential positive interventions. The few studies discovered were all found to show positive results to some degree. These findings support the positive outcome that the initiation of actual stress interventions or programs within the workplace can offer.
The first study used the physical intervention of massage therapy over a 5 week period for nurses in a hospital facility (Bost & Wallis, 2006). This intervention was identified to reduce stress as well as support nurses individually and organizationally. The effects measured were physical and psychological. The study found no change in the physical findings of blood pressure and urinary cortisol levels, however there was decrease in the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in the treatment group compared to the control group. Although there was no physical benefits measured it did reduce the psychological effects of stress. These results suggest that offering the intervention of massage therapy is beneficial in decreasing anxiety levels, which in turn could reduce stress.